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HIV Circumcision The Fight Against AIDS

Intro I'm Hank Green, and this week, SciShow Newsbrings you the latest from Melbourne, Australia, where thousands of scientists from aroundthe world are meeting for the 20th International AIDS Conference to share new insights intothe fight against HIV and AIDS. And I'm happy to report that some promisingfindings have been announced there. The first of which is: We appear to be winning. Based on new data released Tuesday, by nearlyevery measure, HIV is in decline in much of the world.

According to the Institute for Health Metricsand Evaluation, the global incidence of HIV has declined by nearly 33% from its peak,with 1.7 million new cases having been reported last year, compared to 2.8 million new casesin 1997, when the rate of new infections was at its highest. Similarly, the number of deaths by HIV isdown by about 25%, with 400,000 fewer deaths worldwide last year than in 2005, when mortalityreached its peak. The scientists credit much of this successto improved antiretroviral treatments, better results in stopping the transmission of HIVfrom mothers to children, and more widespread

use of HIV prevention programs. But of course, these gains haven't beenmade equally. In the U.S., HIV infection rates have fallenmore than 33% overall in the past ten years — although it's worth pointing out thatthey actually increased by that same amount among young men between 13 and 24. But the biggest disparities, the Center reports,are between industrialized nations and those in the developing world. HIV rates are substantially higher in Thailandand Papua New Guinea than elsewhere in Southeast

Asia, for example, while in Europe they remainwell above average in Ukraine and Kazakhstan. And by far the highest concentrations worldwideremain in southern Africa, particularly Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland, where the total incidenceof HIV is still above 12%. But some other interesting data coming outof Melbourne are about how we can make the most of one of our most surprising weaponsagainst HIV: circumcision. A number of studies have shown that circumcisedmen have significantly lower risk of HIV infection from heterosexual sex than uncircumcised men. I'm talking 50 to 75% lower risk of infection.

In fact, while this was being researched amongmen in Africa in the mid2000s, the effects of circumcision become so clear so quicklythat the studies were actually stopped, so that the control groups of uncircumcised mencould go get circumcised if they wanted to. The results seem to stem from the fact thatskin cells on the inside of the foreskin are different from the rest of most other partsof the body. These cells have less of the protective proteinkeratin in them than other skin cells, for one thing. But they also include high concentrationsof specialized cells that communicate with

our immune systems called Langerhans cells which seem to be prime targets for the HIV virus. So, circumcision has been a promising strategyin combating HIV and AIDS so far. But the challenge has been 1) persuading grown mento have penis surgery, while also making it clear that, if you do get circumcised, youstill have to practice safe sex. But two new reports out of Melbourne showthat these problems might not be as bad as experts thought. One study from the University of Chicago trackedmen who took part in Kenya's national circumcision

Tony Hawk Rides Worlds First Real Hoverboard Hendo Hover

All right, I'm Johnny Knoxville, and I'm about to ride a hoverboard. And I am Tony Hawk, and I'm going to try it myself. This is real Folks! This is the real hoverboard right here. So forget everything you know, this is it ! Funny or die ! Mostly the die part. I'll f****** die. laughter I think the funny or die prank absolutely worked.

I mean, they really wanted that hoverboard. Their dreams were shattered. The hoverboad is just a great way of capturing peoples interest and letting them know how this technology works in a way that everyone can understand. This can make a serious difference and solving a lot of serious problems. Applause That was my first 1080 ! I want to apologize for the hoverboard prank. I thought that it would be obvious that it was fake.

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