Eye Floaters Black Mold

The Truth About Gingers

You know, redheads take a lot crap, not only do they fall prey to nicknames like Big Red, Rusty and Daywalker, they also carrya rich history of misunderstanding on their frequently freckled shoulders. In Greek mythology it was said that redheads turn into vampires when they die. Egyptians particularly enjoyed burningginger virgins. And a number of alchemist spells called for the fat of a flamehaired man. If that weren't enough, in recent years there been headlinessuggesting that redheads will actually go extinct within this century. A lot of theignorance surrounding redheadedness

probably has to do with the fact thatalthough they aren't very rare, redheads aren't very common either. Though certain countries like Irelandand Scotland seem to be hosting perpetual Weasley family reunions, gingers only make up about 1 to 2 percent ofthe world population and they don't have red hair because they stolehellfire or were conceived during menstruation or bitten by a werewolfas a baby. They get their coppery hue the same way we all get our coloration: frommellanin. Hair color is a genetic trait

associated with the melanocortin onereceptor, or MC1R gene. We all have it nestled on our chromosome 16 but yourredheaded friends possess a mutated version of it. This gene givesinstructions for making protein receptors located on our melanocytes, thespecial cells that produce melanin. Melanin is what gives our eyes, hair, andskin their distinct hue and it comes in two varieties: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Aperson producing mostly eumelanin will have darker hair and skin that tanseasily and is better protected from the

sun's UV radiation but if you're brewing mostly pheomalinin then you'regonna have reddish or blonde hair, fair skin that burns easily because it'snot naturally protected from the sun. That's why fair folk have an increasedrisk of skin cancer. It's that MC1R gene that dictates whatkind of melanin you get. If the gene is activated, you'll end up with more eumelanin andwill be darker complected. If those receptors don't trigger,

your cells pump out the fair pheomelanin. We're not exactly sure just how far back the trait goes, but scientistsrecently extracted a version of the ginger gene from the remains of two Neanderthals indicating that atleast some of them were redheads. However the gene was avariant. Not the one present in modern humans, indicating the mutation evolvedindependently from human redheadedness in an example of convergent evolution. Now you may be wondering why both humans and Neanderthal genes wouldperpetuate a skin type so prone to sunburns.

Well, it has to do in part with geography.People from equatorial regions usually have darker hair and skin to betterprotect them from the sun's radiation. Whereas fair skin and hair is more prevalent in northern areas withlower levels of sunlight. The farther you move from the equator, the more that selectivepressure for darker pigmentation lessens and the mutant MC1R genes are notselected against so they can spread throughout apopulation. And then, hello Scotland. The successful spread of this mutation may be because fair skin is better at generating vitamin D

Do Women Have Adams Apples

Some of our favorite Quick Questions to answerare the ones where the premise of the question is flawed. Like, take this one: Why don't women haveadam's applesé The answer is: I don't … I can't answerthat, ‘cause women do have adam's apples! Technically, the adam's apple is known asthe laryngeal prominence, and it's actually just a big piece of cartilage that coversyour larynx, or voice box. Everyone has one, because you need it to protectyour larynx and everything you keep inside there to make yourself heard, particularlyyour vocal folds often mistakenly called

vocal cords. This protection is important enough that thereare actually nine different pieces of cartilage that work together to protect your larynx.The one that forms the laryngeal prominence is the biggest and uppermost piece, calledthe thyroid cartilage. Cartilage is just a kind of stiff, flexibleconnective tissue it doesn't have any nerves or blood vessels in it and the prominenceis where two plates of cartilage meet and fuse together, forming a little peak. As children, everyone's laryngeal prominenceis the same size. But when you reach puberty,

your larynx and all of the cartilage aroundit grows considerably, giving you your grownup voice. But the way in which the cartilagegrows is different depending on your sex. For biological females, the two plates developto form a more obtuse angle, of about 120 degrees. This makes it rest flatter in thethroat. But in males, the plates form a 90 degreeangle, which makes the prominence even more prominent. And because the rapid growth of the larynxand all its fixins is driven by testosterone, males' voice boxes and thyroid cartilagetypically grow more than females', which

can not only give them deeper voices, it canalso put a bigger lump in their throat. So an enlarged, angled adam's apple is considereda male secondary sex characteristic a specific variation of a feature that everyone actuallyhas. Keep the questions coming! We love ‘em! Thanks for watching this Quick Question, especiallyto our Subbable subscribers who get these tutorials a little early for subscribing. Thankyou. If you have a quick question, let us knowon Facebook or on Twitter or in the comments below, and if you want to keep getting smarterwith us, just go to YouTube scishow and


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